The article addresses human rights issues that arise from the use of unmanned military systems in armed conflict. It is assessed when and to what extent human rights law applies in times of armed conflict. The major focus is the question of whether or not human rights law applies extraterritorially. It is argued that it applies to a greater extent to the use of unmanned military systems than might be expected under the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. Hence, a new approach to the concept of ‘jurisdiction’ is submitted. In addition, specific scenarios, in which unmanned military systems are frequently deployed, are measured against the legal framework.