Sunstein contends that “the future of government” largely lies in policies that preserve freedom of choice. Such policies, which he and Thaler dubbed “nudges,” would encourage people to make decisions that benefit rather than harm them. Nudges attempt to influence people’s choices by altering the circumstances of choice to bring about a desired result. “To count as a mere nudge,” Sunstein writes, “the intervention must be easy and cheap to avoid. Nudges are not mandates. Putting the fruit at eye level [in a school cafeteria, for example] counts as a nudge. Banning junk food does not.” Advertisers and salespersons are professional nudgers. They appeal to our feelings and influence our beliefs and judgments so that we choose in ways that benefit them. Government nudges, by contrast, are designed to influence individuals to choose in ways that promote their own health, safety, and welfare.