Simon Chesterman (National University of Singapore (NUS) - Faculty of Law) has posted From Westphalia to Rome via Solferino: A Typology of NGOs and Civil Society in Public International Law on SSRN. Here is the abstract:
How “public” is public international law? Despite its natural law origins, international law has long privileged the role of the state. Today, NGOs and civil society actors play an increasingly important role — offering a voice for the disenfranchised through their advocacy, and a helping hand for the disadvantaged through their operations. Calls for accountability of these actors are understandable, but often founder on their diversity. This paper therefore develops a typology of such actors, based on their activities and their drivers. That typology better reflects the reasons for and circumstances in which accountability is appropriate. In addition, it suggests a possible evolution in the international order where the status of an actor (state, intergovernmental organisation, NGO, etc) is less important than its function.